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Showing content with the highest reputation since 01/11/2020 in all areas

  1. 2 points
    This is just sort of a stream of consciousness essay on my understanding of FWD vs. 4WD vs. AWD. As Dennis Miller used to say, it's just my opinion--I could be wrong! With that said I welcome any and all corrections and clarifications. I seem see a lot of questions and confusion online about the differences between 4WD and AWD, and most of the answers online are vague and sometimes not really accurate. Many of you know all of this already so I'm putting it here for those who don't or may still have questions. I’ve dug fairly deep into this subject and tried to distill what I’ve learned from both reading up on the subject and various you-tube videos on the subject. I highly recommend anything from this site--Engineering Explained https://www.youtube.com/user/EngineeringExplained , they have a great wealth of info and that guy has a very good way of explaining very technical concepts in a way that non tech-nerds can understand. Even still it’s hard to completely nail down the actual real-world mechanics of it all, but here’s my go at it. Again I welcome any corrections, elaborations, etc. I'm not an engineer, just an enthusiast, so my knowledge on the subject is largely informal. Starting from the old days when most cars were 2WD, rear drive: In America the typical cars from the 60s and 70s were mostly open-rear-diff 2WD, so only when on dry pavement did you have 50% torque split of actual useful energy between left and right rear tire, and fortunately this is most of the time so you get equal wear on the components of each side (bearings, gears, and tires wear differently between being dragged and being under torque). However, if you tried to pull up your driveway and the left rear tire was on a patch of ice but the right was on dry pavement--the left rear got 100% of the engine’s torque--which, while scientifically may be "some torque" because it's moving the driveline components and physically turning the tire--but for the context of this discussion, it’s getting zero torque because we're not going anywhere. So the concept of an open differential providing equal torque still stands here--the right rear is providing zero torque as well. Technically, if the driveline resistance to the spinning tire were large enough, then the right wheel might provide some usable torque and therefore motion (more on this later as that's where ABS/Traction Control come in), but the reality is that you were stuck, period, and had to resort to any number of tricks we had back then to get moving. Around that same time, in the early 70's when I was a teen, the only real high-traction option was true 4WD or (4x4). As a 16 year-old, I drove a tow truck/snowplow for a gas station. This tow-truck was a true 4WD--this meant it had a limited slip differential in the rear and a solid-locking differential in the front. These were connected by a transfer case (not a center-differential). Most of these trucks then, as now, were rear-dominant, meaning that in "normal" driving mode the transfer case was in 2WD driving only the rear driveshaft. So in normal mode, even if one rear was in the ice, the centrifugal force of the spinning tire would lock up a clutch in the LSD and the other tire would provide roughly equal torque. Some “4x4” trucks did not have an LSD in the rear (or it wore out over time) so were technically 3x4. However, even with the weight of a tow-hook in the back, this isn't enough to push a big pile of snow, especially when one is sitting in that deep snow to begin with. The front diff on these 4x4s had an open differential with hard-locking capability in the hubs. So to get into true 4x4 mode, step one was to stop the truck, shift the transfer-case to 4wd (4-Lo for snow plowing, 4-Hi for general off-road or heavy snow/mud driving). Step two I'd get out of the truck--usually while still on dry pavement so I stay dry, but where my entry to the snow was a straight line (this is very important because once the hubs are locked, making a turn on dry pavement will bind the tires and/or diff gears when locked)--and I'd twist the hub locker to lock the left and right hubs on the front wheels. The solid locking hubs are much better than an LSD--no waiting for spin to "activate" the other tire--the axle was, for all intents and purposes, a solid shaft from left to right . So in this situation, we have essentially direct-from-the-engine torque at all 4 wheels--no ifs, ands, or buts--the torque is there even if a tire is aloft. With the weight of the plow and engine up front, and the tow-hook in back, there was so much weight/friction at all 4 tires that I was never getting stuck. Once finished "plowing" or, because I was a fun-loving teen at the time "just plain having fun on company time" with the boss’s tow-truck in the nearby woods or a snow or mud covered field, I'd pull out onto the dry-pavement area, get out, unlock the hubs, and shift the transfer case back to 2wd and head back to the station. As an aside, in the snow when you're plowing (and really in almost any snow situation unless the snow is much deeper than your cars ground-clearance) the goal is to get the tires dug down to the pavement, and this particular truck had tall thin snow tires—perfect for that purpose. I’d see other 4x4s with “mudders”—big wide tires—that could get stuck in snow even in full 4x4 mode because they were basically skiing or floating on top of the snow. However, If that heavy tow truck and thin tires were in very wet mud then it has no pavement to dig down to and risks digging itself till it’s frame is settled on the mud and getting stuck, so there is a good case for mudder tires. At one point in the mud I almost needed to get out and wrap the tow-hook around a tree to get me out, but some gentle rocking got me free. FWD—a little better but not the complete solution. In the mid/late 70s, Front-wheel drive came on the market. This was mostly in economy cars made to combat the ongoing gas-crisis. Cars such as the Dodge Omni were typical—these gave a noticeable advantage in traction due to the simple fact that instead of the driving wheels being under the (normally empty) rear trunk of the car, they were under the engine up front, which helped a great deal. ABS/Traction Control were still well over a decade away, but taking advantage of physics this way was a no-brainer and a welcome advance. It also introduced us to understeer and torque-steer, and sadly--unless you had a center lever parking brake in your FWD car--it took away the great fun found in RWD oversteer in big empty parking lots after a fresh snow! Gradually FWD made its way into mainstream sedans and the of course mini-vans, which were coming just over the Omni…er…Horizon (probably only those who remember those Dodge/Plymouth FWD cars models will get that arcane reference!). Fast forward to the days of AWD. AS FWD proved an incremental advantage, more was needed to really overcome the traction issues faced by those driving in snow, ice,and even rain. The simplest and most generic implementations of AWD at first consisted of three open diffs--front, center, and rear. (this discussion excludes a small variety of makes, like Jeeps, Subarus, Audis, BMW X-drive and a few others that have nearly always had some sort of transfer-case or locking/LSD center differential.) Most of these initial AWD implementations were in SUV's that started life as FWD SUVs. So for the majority of AWD SUVs, the dominant axle is the front, which has shorter and beefier axles, and the AWD option threw in an open center diff with a little prop shaft to the back to turn a couple of pencil-thin rear axles to assist if you hit ice or snow. It’s important to note that most of these front-dominant AWD vehicles even today will only do a max 50/50 split front/rear, because the thinner, longer axles/half-shafts in the rear simply couldn’t handle 100% of the torque if it needed to move close to 100% of the vehicle’s maximum load. They will do their job admirably by helping in snow, even hard-pull 1/4 mile launches on dry pavement, and to help cornering, etc---but in the case of the typical grocery-getter AWD SUV, the rear driveline just isn’t beefy enough to tow a boat uphill all by itself--and the carmakers wouldn’t (shouldn't) allow that 0/100 torque split to happen if it didn’t beef up the components. As an example, in my Edge, the front axles are relatively short, thick and stubby (this matters), with the fat part of the shaft about 1 ¾” diameter while the most tapered part of the shaft has a diameter of 1 3/16”. The narrow part of the shaft is only a couple of inches in length at each end not counting the splines. Contrast that to the rear half-shafts, which are only 7/8” diameter end-to-end, and around two feet long. So not only are the rear shafts much thinner, they are much longer too. Even if they were the same diameter as the front, the length makes a difference and effectively lessens the absolute load it can handle. Consider that it’s much easier to twist and snap, say a 10-foot bar that’s an 1/2 diameter (it's already sagging at a length of 10 feet!) than a 2” long bar of same diameter. And it’s that twisting/torsion that’s the problem, (which is one of the reasons for FWD torque-steer--unequal-length front halfshafts). Also, once the torsion on one of those rear half-shafts gets to the point where it deforms, first of all it becomes more likely to snap the more twist deformation occurs. Secondly, if it doesn’t snap then but retains some deformity--subsequently when you get to any speed over, say 20 mph, you’re going to get a big whomping sound in the back and that bent axle shaft is eventually going to do some big-time damage. So the point being, if you were stuck crawling up a rocky hill in your AWD SUV with all the 2-plus tons on the back wheels and all the torque is also happened to be at the rear diff—you risk twisting and snapping an axle. If you were able to turn around and go up the rocky hill in reverse using the front dominant axle (thicker and shorter shafts), you could make it without damage. But AWD SUVs were never made for rock crawling, so hopefully nobody puts themselves in that situation with a "typical" AWD vehicle. Anyway, from a traction standpoint, AWD at first blush might be seen as a potentially worse situation than a 2wd vehicle. Because now, while you've got the "opportunity" to have four total chances at traction—remembering the concept of the open-differential--it seems we really just gave ourselves more chances to have a tire happen to be on a patch of ice--because it's only *one* of four wheels that will really get the torque if you’re in an icy patch--and it'll be the one with the least traction. Fortunately, this is where traction-control comes in. It’s basically implemented the same as it had been implemented in the FWD sedans and SUVs, but now just includes all 4 wheels in the logic. The Trac systems use ABS to clamp the spinning tire, and continues to do so on other tires as they spin until it "finds" the one with the most traction; they also typically throttle-down the engine. So in reality, AWD does in fact provide the advantage of having one tire out of four getting good traction instead of two tires of four--but as anyone who's driven them knows, this comes at the price of a very slow start-off from stop when you’re in snow. With Trac’s throttle-down and the clamping/unclamping different wheels dozens if not hundreds of times per second, you’re just kind of easing your way forward slowly. You do get going but it is nowhere near what a true 4x4 can do. I’d also guess that a 2WD with a Torsen (say, a Mustang GT with a few bags of sand in the trunk) might even do better than an AWD with all open diffs because it will have a positive torque split at two wheels instead of one. Put snow tires on that Mustang against summer tires on the AWD SUV and the Mustang with the Torsen (and don’t forget the bags of sand in the trunk!) has a very clear advantage. In the snow, true snow-tires with 2WD vs. summer tires and AWD is a no brainer—I’ll take the snow tires over virtual slicks any on any vehicle regardless of powertrain. And not just because of the launch traction--you still need to corner and you still need to stop. Waaaay too many people think AWD helps them stop better and corner better in the snow--I've seen too many rear-enders and AWD newbies in the ditch to know that's still the case and there should be a warning on that with a new AWD vehicle--especially with the cheap "good-enough-to-drive-off-the-lot" tires that some of these cars come stock with. So the next iterations of AWD started introducing some sort of LSD for the center-diff, whether it be a viscous clutch, a dry clutch, electronically locking mechanical drum or brake, a Torsen, or some other way of guaranteeing that some torque will go to both front and rear regardless of the traction situation back there. So now instead of 1-of-4 chances at traction, with a locking center diff you have 2 positive chances at traction now--and that is a huge step forward, literally and figuratively. For example I have an AWD Tucson which has an electronically locking center diff, and the difference that center locker makes in snow is very significant and noticeable. The Tucson’s AWD on its own without engaging the center lock was a big leap in snow traction over my old Sonata FWD sedan--but when I hit that locker button that’s a whole different feeling--it’s a real game changer in the snow and even rain. That is until I hit 18 mph when the safety system unlocks it because too many people would leave that locked and end up on dry pavement, making a turn, and tearing up the tires and possibly gears. It’s important to note that the reason for the clunking on dry pavement when the center-diff is locked is not due to the left vs. right tire speed rpm difference in a turn, but instead due to the front vs. rear propshaft rpm difference, because both pairs of outer and inner tires will turn at slightly different speeds—for similar reasons as the left vs. right but it’s a distinction that should be noted. All types of unlocked center diffs compensate for this front/rear rpm difference the same as the front and rear diffs deal with it—the center-diff may have slightly different technology and gear-sets but they accomplish the same goal. Finally... So nowadays most modern AWD SUVs have some sort of LSD in the center to ensure positive propshaft torque to the rear without having to rely on Trac to fake it. However, many still have open diffs in the front and rear and use Trac to simulate an LSD both front and rear, which, while not optimal, is still something. Notable exceptions to this as mentioned at the top would be Jeeps, Subarus, G-wagons, and Land Rovers—most of those come standard with some form of a transfer case and/or locking or LSD for the center-diff. Often they have the option for LSD both front and rear, as well. So for example, a Jeep with a transfer case will always have an advantage over a typical AWD SUV even if it has open front and rear diffs. Not only can they put positive torque on more wheels, the drivelines are also made so both front and rear can carry the entire load if called upon to do so. The minor disadvantage of course is that you still only want to fully lock the front/rear axles when you’re in slushy situations, and unlock it when dry. There are a lot of ways they accomplish this—many are electronic and very convenient. It’s been many, many years since I’ve seen anyone step out of their truck to lock the front hubs! So that's my story and I'm sticking to it but like I said--I could be wrong and welcome corrections and elaborations because I've seen so much confusion over this issue and I'd like to do what I can to clear it up for everyone--including me.
  2. 2 points
    It sure sounds like its working as it should. I don't think anyone leaves their vehicle running for 48 hours.
  3. 1 point
    I thought I would help someone else out after spending a lot of time trying to figure out how to replace the GPS module (GPSM) on 2012 Ford Edge Limited. I had the red X gps icon on the nav screen and a compass stuck on last known direction. This occurred after having a weak battery which led to a failed start, jump start, and battery replacement. Everything else seemed fine and operational except the compass and the nav location. Attempted all of the resets/master reset, pulling battery cables for extended periods of time in/out of garage and checked the gps fuse all to no avail. Purchased new GPSM from ford (part: DT4Z10E893-A Found a lot of conflicting information about where this module was actually located but knew that it would have to be located under the top of the dash. After tearing out the head unit and glove box with no success I ended up finding it behind the instrument cluster. Pretty simple to replace once located. Many have posted that the module needed to be reprogrammed by the dealer, but after I installed the new module everything came back to life. The compass righted itself within a mile of neon driven and the nav was fully functional again. My wife is happy to have her nav working again and the repair only cost me about $65 and an hour or so spent looking for the location of the module. In my research I found that some were quoted $500-$1,000 for the dealer to replace so I hope this information helps someone else some time and money.
  4. 1 point
    Have a 2012 3.5 that at times is hard to start. Before I go into detail though, what do you call the feature where you can turn the key, release it and it will continue to start?
  5. 1 point
    For having the fastest and highest horsepower edge, it has been very reliable, just stay on top of fluid changes and she will be good. Yes we regularly tow about 6,000lbs no issues.
  6. 1 point
    The power stop will fit the bill perfectly for his needs!
  7. 1 point
    Ford’s AWD can send almost 100% of the power to the rear wheels for short periods. Also Ford doesn’t use a center diff - it electronically engages the rear diff via an electronic clutch. Otherwise pretty much correct.
  8. 1 point
    In addition to upgrading the brakes. He should also use engine braking while going downhill: put the car in S mode (sport mode) and use the paddle to downshift and engine brake while going downhill
  9. 1 point
    The rear hatch glass breakage issue was handled by Ford Canada per the attached Customer Service Program (not a recall) document. It's probably the reason you got the first repair without an argument. Maybe if you print it and wave it in the face of someone at your dealership they'll get the message (you dolts didn't do the repair properly the first time) and work with you. Good luck! CSP 17B39 Rear Hatch Glass breakage.pdf
  10. 1 point
    Yes, that is normal. See the owner's manual.
  11. 1 point
    <<MasterTVTech asked: Can I get the GT splash screen on my 2016 with Forscan? >> You might want to edit your post so it isn't a giant blank space followed by my entire OP. Just your question would work The answer is...Yes, unless you've updated Sync 3 to build 19025. If you're still on 18093 you're good to go. Here's the full list of changes you can make, note the GT Animated theme requires 3 separate changes: Change Themes APIM 7D0-02-01: Standard Ford logo; XXXX 0106 XXXX Lincoln logo; XXXX 0401 XXXX Lincoln Black Label logo; XXXX 0301 XXXX Ford Raptor logo; XXXX 0501 XXXX Ford Mustang logo; XXXX 0601 XXXX Ford GT350 logo; XXXX 0701 XXXX Vignale Classic; XXXX 0801 XXXX Ford GT350R logo; XXXX 0901 XXXX Ford Performance ST logo; XXXX 0B01 XXXX Ford Performance RS logo; XXXX 0C01 XXXX Ford Performance GT logo; XXXX 0D01 XXXX 01-Lincoln Continental logo; XXXX 0E01 XXXX GT Full Theme Incl Splash APIM 7D0-01-02 0xxx xxxx xxxx 7D0-02-01 xxxx xDxx xxxx 7D0-03-01 xxxx x4xx xxxx Lincoln Brown Theme (screen) APIM 7D0-03-01 xxxx x2xx xxxx Must also set 7d0-01-02 8xxx xxxx xxxx
  12. 1 point
    Ordered it!… Didn't receive it yet though… Claude.
  13. 1 point
    Wife got a 2016 Lincoln MKX Premier, and I got a 2016 Edge SEL last month and really happy from driving an 2002 Explorer for 18 years. Got into my wife's Lincoln for the first time last night and BLOWN away by the diference with her HID headlights compared to my halogens with 36K miles. Started researching and settled on "SEALIGHT H11/H9 Low Beam 9005/HB3 High Beam LED Headlight Bulbs Combo. LOTS of various info out there and hard to "sort through it all" but VERY happy with the results. I purchased the H11-9005 S2 kit and was pleasantly suprised that the output was as good as my wife's 2016 Lincoln MKX with Factory HID. Low beam LED alignment perfect 90 degree. Exceptional product. Great replacement for 2016 Ford Edge
  14. 1 point
    I would have sworn that my '17 SEL didn't have a hood switch; I couldn't see any wires anywhere near the latch. The dash did not warn me hood was open. I turned the setting in FORScan to 'yes' it does have a hood switch, and then forgot about it. The other day I was playing around with it. My Edge was running on remote start; I opened the hood and the engine turned off. I just went out and checked it now before posting this. The dash does tell me the hood is open now.
  15. 1 point
    That thread (now 9 pages long) started as a software discussion. This thread started off talking hardware. It appears both drifted a little.
  16. 1 point
    Have we grown a dislike of the existing thread on this topic? https://www.fordedgeforum.com/topic/23250-comprehensive-list-of-possible-forscan-mods/
  17. 1 point
    Hi Mike, I'm about to do my 2011 Limited struts. Did you have to remove the cowl above the strut to get the top bolts out? How long did the whole job take? Any special tools beside spring compressors? Any tips? Thanks!
  18. 1 point
    That is incredible. Wish you were local cause I'd be asking for ride in it!
  19. 1 point
    While enthusiastic customers await the return of the upcoming Ford Bronco 4x4, engineers are hard at work ensuring it is ready to take on the wild. View the full article
  20. 1 point
    The ST trans was a big mistake..... all they needed to do was take the Sport and apply all the handling changes and tune to it and be done.....oh and not add 200lbs.....
  21. 1 point
    My 2013 3.5l awd with 160k kms on it achieved 12-14mpg in city no where close to the 18 it was rated for, but it did better than rated on the highway so knew it was driving/conditions and not a problem with the car.
  22. 1 point
    Are you having oil consumption issues? That may be a problem in your 2011 Edge. If you check oil level regularly, you will know. OR if you check the intake tubing/back of the throttle plate and see pooling oil. Then you would need to update the front valve cover to fix it. Also due for new plugs and new fluids at the very least. Then there are the standard variables: load carried by the vehicle, tire pressure, driving conditions, fuel quality, etc.
  23. 1 point
    As previously mentioned I got the LX20 and at this point that was 8 months ago and about 2k to 3k miles ago. I got them at DT for less than Ford. While the DT site said they were T, the sales rep ended up ordering me H. He showed me on the computer the wholesale site where they order tires and it showed both H and T for the same price and he got H because that's what the car is rated for. The tires do need as mentioned on the Continental site and elsewhere they do need a break in period. Some say 500 to 750 miles. To me it seems like it was about at least 1000. When not broken in they seem harsher, more road issues telegraphing, but over time that evens and smooths out. Now I don't notice anything. (I mean with this car's suspension its a firmer ride anyway so it's not like riding in a Cadillac. ;-D ) No rock or pebble problems! I could tell right away they have low rolling resistance as the car just goes when you press the gas and overall the tires are quiet. They came with a tread depth of 12/32 and I will keep an eye on the wear. DT had inflated the tires to 37 but I took it down to between 32-33 for the break in period and now they are at 35. When we finally had some snow about 1 to 2 inches and I tried them out on an uncleared road. They worked well, better than the worn down Latitudes I had. With the latitudes the problem was pressing the brakes and the ABS would come on right away and the car would keep sliding which is kind of terrifying. With these whether the ABS came on or not the car would slow down and stop. From a stop, starting traction (with AWD) is good.
  24. 1 point
    Great now I have to clean coffee off my computer monitors. Great start to my Monday.
  25. 0 points
    What's even more confusing is in Canada our window sticker mpg is in imperial but our dashes calculate in US mpg.